F-gas Chiller Leak Testing

Nitrogen cylinder and regulator with gauges attached for f-gas chiller leak testing

F-gas Chiller Leak Testing

Regulations

The regulations for F-gas chiller leak testing have been devised to reduce the environmental impact of HFC refrigerants. They are standardised regulations which are implemented across Europe. Now that we have left the EU, we will continue to be aligned with these regulations.

News Article No.14

Leak Test Frequency Required

The frequency of leak tests depends on the type and quantity of the refrigerant. For example, a system which runs on R134a, the frequency is:
• once every 12 months for a charge less than 3.5 kg.
• once every 6 months for a charge less than 35 kg.
• once every 3 months for a charge less than 350 kg.
All of our maintenance schedules far exceed these minimum requirements. This is because our customers require maintenance visits more often to ensure the efficient running of their plant.

Static Leak Detectors

These leak detectors must be fitted to systems with more than 500 tonnes of CO2 equivalent. For the refrigerants most commonly used in chillers this is:
• R410a 239 kg
• R407c 282 kg
• R134a 350 kg

Global Warming Potential

The GWP numbers below represent the amount of greenhouse effect each refrigerant has, by comparison with an equal mass of carbon dioxide:
• R410a 2,088
• R407c 1,732
• R134a 1,300

Now we have had a look at some of the regulations, let’s have a look at a day in the life of our engineers here at Maximus Chillers. Read below for three different examples of leak testing carried out in the field…

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Pressure Testing Following a Leak

In the photo a leak has just been brazed on the condenser. It is recommended in the industry to use a steel braided line with a ¼ turn valve. This is so that if a nitrogen regulator malfunctions, it can be valved off, instead of a system being filled with bottle pressure from the cylinder. For a small system, this could cause a catastrophic explosion. We decided, therefore, to use a small cylinder which would expand into the large volume of the chiller. Should this fault occur, the safe working pressure would not be exceeded. This was taken into account when writing our Risk Assessment Method Statement. The pressure was built up in stages until the test pressure was achieved. This was recorded on our Pressure Test Certificate and witnessed by the customer. The result of the pressure test 4 hrs later was satisfactory and also witnessed by the customer.

Follow up Actions

A return visit was arranged 2 weeks later to leak test the chiller again. Our engineer carried out a visual inspection of all of the parts of the refrigerant pipework. He then used an electronic leak detector to see if it went into alarm. All was okay, so he completed the F-gas Certificate and left it in the customer’s file.

Routine F-gas Chiller Leak Testing during Maintenance

On another site, we look after 6 air cooled MW chillers in a row outside a building at a petrochemical facility. Our engineer ran the systems up, one at a time, to 100% so as to show up any refrigerant shortages. He was looking at the subcooling and superheat values. Two of the systems had poor readings which alerted his attention to a potential leak. On one of the systems, the poor readings were found to be caused by a faulty expansion valve. On the other, he diagnosed that the chiller was running short of refrigerant. He then carried out an inspection and found signs of a leak on a liquid pipe, just after the filter/ drier. The system was locked off with the refrigerant valves closed either side of the leak. This was to prevent the refrigerant from carrying on leaking to atmosphere. Then, he sent a report into Head Office detailing the estimated refrigerant addition needed to replace the refrigerant lost. Refrigerant removal was not needed as the area of the leak had been valved off from the rest of the system. He also detailed the materials required for the job and the necessary labour time that would be needed.

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Looking for a Leak

There are a variety of methods that can be used to identify the location of a refrigerant leak. Here are some examples…

Ultrasonic F-gas Chiller Leak Testing

An ultrasonic leak detector uses a microphone on the end of a wand. This is connected to a battery and processing pack, which is where headphones are plugged into. The sensitivity can be adjusted on the processing pack until a good working level is found. The various components on the chiller can then be inspected to find an audible sound of a leak.

Electronic F-gas Chiller Leak Testing

Otherwise known as a sniff tester, the electronic leak detector is one of the most popular types of leak detectors. The battery can be recharged via the cigar lighter in a car, or can be recharged back at the office with a transformer plugged into the mains. The heated diode sensor and the filter can fail or need to be replaced, so replacement parts are available. The instrument needs to be calibrated to a no refrigerant atmosphere, then it takes samples of the atmosphere being tested. It compares the two atmospheres and looks for a difference. Most electronic leak detectors work with all HFC refrigerants.

Bubble Up F-gas Chiller Leak Testing

There are a variety of bubble up leak detection sprays that are available off the shelf. At Maximus Chillers we make our own leak detection solution in our laboratory at Head Office. We mix two chemicals together in the correct proportions. This solution is carried in sprayer bottles in the boot of each of our company vehicles. When looking for a leak, our engineers use it around the suspected areas of a leak. It is the best form of leak detection that we know, as it can find the smallest of leaks, right up to large leaks which are audible to the ear.

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Two blue open drive Vilter reciprocating chiller compressors being maintained in a plant room

Reciprocating Chiller Compressor Maintenance

Reciprocating chiller compressor maintenance for two low temperature ammonia chillers. Reciprocating means a forwards and backwards motion in a straight line. This is achieved by converting the circular motion of the crankshaft, into a linear motion using the connecting rods. The pistons are on the end of the con rods, which slide up and down inside the cylinder liners.

Piston Rings

There are two types of piston rings which are used:

Compression Ring

This is the upper ring and is designed to a high tolerance to prevent the refrigerant vapour from bypassing the piston.

Oil Ring

This is the lower ring and is designed to regulate the oil flow around the piston.

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Cylinder Head

The cylinder head is usually cast iron and serves as a pressure plate. It holds the valve gear and has passageways for the suction and discharge of the refrigerant. The discharge pressure varies according to the kind of refrigerant and application. For a 0°C saturation it can be as low as 7 bar on R134a, or as high as 30 bar on R410a. The discharge temperature is usually around 60°C to 80°C which is recorded on our detailed Tick Sheet during the maintenance.

Valve Gear

Helix springs or reeds are popular with this type of compressor. Wave springs are another design that can be seen in operation on our YouTube channel. The video uses a cut away view and the oil is depicted in yellow. These springs control the suction (intake) and the discharge (exhaust) of the refrigerant…

Suction

The suction valves have the least amount of failures because the refrigerant is cool, low pressure and is carrying oil.

Discharge

The discharge valves, however, can have heavy molecules of hydrocarbons collect on them in the form of carbon. This causes them to not seat correctly, resulting in a deterioration of compressor performance. The difference in pressure between suction and discharge, otherwise known as the compression ratio, is a check that we carry out during the maintenance. The pressure and temperature is higher on the discharge valves, so more stress is exerted on to them. Therefore, they have a reduced lifespan by comparison to suction valves.

Top Dead Centre

The piston needs to come as close as possible to the cylinder head to create the largest amount of compressed refrigerant. This is called the clearance space which is usually less than 0.5 mm.

Discharge Header Safety Spring

This spring is fitted into the cylinder head and allows the valve gear to lift when:
• Liquid refrigerant slugs back to the compressor due to poor heat exchange in the evaporator.
• An oil slugging condition occurs.
• Water is drawn around the system from a burst condenser or evaporator.
As a compressor cannot compress a liquid, the valve gear lifting prevents an expensive compressor smash up from occurring.

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Reciprocating Chiller Compressor Maintenance of Shaft Seal

The compressors in the photo are open drive. Each has a shaft seal which has two, mirror finish rubbing surfaces. One seal turns with the crankshaft and the other is stationary. We check the amount of oil that is seeping from the shaft seal on every visit. When we notice that the level in the oil bottle is too high, we arrange a visit to change the shaft seal. This can be done without disruption to your process, as the other compressors can be left running while we carry out the work.

Reciprocating Chiller Compressor Maintenance of Drives

This kind of compressor is usually driven by an in line electric motor, as in the photo. It can also be driven by ‘v’ belts from an electric motor which is located to the side of the compressor. The ‘v’ belts are checked during the visit to see if there are any cracks on the inside working surface. We replace these with the pre ordered spares that are on site at no extra charge. They are then re tensioned according to standard industry guidelines.

Reciprocating Chiller Compressor Maintenance of Crankcase

This is a cast iron housing that all of the above components fit into. It provides the necessary support and strength for the compressor to operate at its high temperatures and pressures. The crankcase heater keeps the oil at operating temperature during the off cycles. It is usually a bore type which pushes into a hole in the casting. We check for the correct operation of the crankcase heaters and replace them where necessary. This is another spare that is kept on site, so that a return visit is not needed.

Service Ports

These bolt on to the compressor crankcase. They can be positioned in various directions, depending on which way the suction and discharge pipes go. The compressor can be valved off when it is being worked on. These ports are used by engineers to attach their gauges during the maintenance. On each visit, we check the calibration of the system pressure transducers by checking them against our gauges.

Reciprocating Chiller Compressor Maintenance of Oil Pump

This is a gear type pump which is fitted to the end of the compressor crankshaft. The pump sucks the oil through a filter from the sump of the compressor. Then, it is discharged from the pump, down the crankshaft passageways to the connecting rods. From here it travels up the con rod passageways and out through the pistons to the cylinder liners. Here, it provides the essential lubrication between the pistons and the liners. According to the maintenance schedule, we periodically change the oil filters to ensure the optimum running conditions of your compressors.

MAXIMUS ADVANTAGE™

If a compressor smash up occurs and the compressor is found to be obsolete- don’t worry. We can adapt the compressor mountings and the pipework for a different compressor. This is part of what we call The MAXIMUS ADVANTAGE™ Any Chiller- Any Problem- Any Part- Any Refrigerant- Anywhere.

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Maximus Chillers sign outside our chiller maintenance company office

Chiller Maintenance Company

Diagnosis of Chillers

One of the most important parts of a chiller maintenance company is the diagnosis. If this is done wrong, the wrong parts are ordered and the return job goes wrong.

News Article No.7

For us at Maximus Chillers, it is imperative that we get the diagnosis right, so the return job goes easy. On a maintenance visit, a detailed Tick Sheet is completed with all the necessary readings and adjustments.

Chiller Maintenance Company Case Study

One of our engineers was on a maintenance visit recently and he found an electrical fault with a relay. An intermittent fault- so the most annoying to diagnose. The relay interlocks the compressor A1 run signal on the start contactor. The fault causing the relay to drop out was the high pressure condition. The high pressure switch was found to be in good working order with continuity back to the relay, so the relay was deemed to be not switching intermittently. The relay was changed with the available stock on site and the machine went back into seamless operation.

State of the Art Equipment

At Maximus Chillers we know that incorrect test equipment can lead to incorrect diagnosis. That’s why we have the highest quality equipment which is regularly inspected, replaced or calibrated. With a Fluke multimeter with fused leads- we diagnose the most complicated of problems. Sometimes a wiring diagram is not available, or the machine has been modified. Even wires disappearing into a conduit and ending up on the other end of the chiller can be traced and effectively diagnosed. You can rest assured that with the ongoing maintenance by Maximus Chillers- we will extend the useful life of any chiller.

Chiller Maintenance Company Technical Support Desk

For over the phone diagnosis, our contract customers enjoy the full benefit of our technical support desk. Faults are often something and nothing, or are just to do with how the machine was restarted. If we can get a chiller away over the phone, that saves us time and that saves you: the customer money too. Just part of what we call the MAXIMUS ADVANTAGE™ Any Chiller- Any Problem- Any Part- Any Refrigerant- Anywhere.

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Expansion Valves

We at Maximus Chillers have a comprehensive range of expansion valves, on the shelf, in our stores at Head Office in Droylsden, Manchester. There are three commonly used types of expansion valve used on a chiller:

Pulse Expansion Valve

This is a simple design of a solenoid coil lifting a solenoid valve and opening the diaphragm in the expansion valve. This allows the refrigerant to pass from the high side of the system into the low side. A sensor either side of the evaporator feeds back to the controls. The controls work out the length of time the valve stays open and the length of time the valve stays closed. Quite a simple idea and quite reliable from our experience too. The replacement of parts are a straight swap.

Electronic Expansion Valve

Another type of valve we stock is the electronic expansion valve. Similar to the above, this valve uses a sensor either side of the evaporator to work out the superheat. Another method of working out the superheat is a sensor and a transducer. Either way amounts to the same thing: the controls work out the difference in temperature and saturation point. The mechanical part of the valve is a step motor which winds all the way shut when the chiller starts. This is so that the controls can register step 0. As the valve opens, the controls record the amount of steps. It therefore knows the position of the valve to regulate a close control of superheat.

Thermostatic Expansion Valve

A thermostatic expansion valve is a completely mechanical and stand alone part. The pressure in the bulb increases with temperature and so forces the valve open. We have the full range of orifices for the commonly used varieties of valve on the shelf. Each orifice is used for a different application, ranging from low temperature -40°C saturation, through medium temperature 0°C saturation, to high temperature 20°C saturation. High temperature applications include laser chillers- the secondary refrigerant cools the oscillator and the laser head.

HFC Refrigerant

HFC refrigerant is being phased down to 21% by 2030. This is in accordance with F-gas guidelines and the emission reduction measures as defined in the Kyoto Protocol. This refrigerant, however, still remains to be the most popular type amongst chillers, with new chillers coming off the production line charged with, most commonly, R407c and sometimes R410a. R134a is also a popular chiller refrigerant most commonly used in flooded centrifugal chillers. The more the phasedown starts to pinch, the more the incentive to use a lower GWP (global warming potential) drop in refrigerant. This extends the useful life of the chiller, therefore removing the need to build a new chiller, with the associated high amount of carbon emissions.

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Evaporators

Eddy current Inspections by Chiller Maintenance Company

At periodic intervals according to the maintenance schedule, the end plates are taken off the evaporators and the tubes are inspected. We have calibrated eddy current instrumentation to assess the integrity of the evaporator tubing. This equipment uses electromagnetic coils to produce eddy currents, the electrical impedance is then measured. It picks up any cracks, pitting or corrosion. The conclusions are mapped onto a chart showing the tubes which are likely to fail. These tubes can be taken out of operation to prevent catastrophic system failure in the future. The system can then be pressure tested in accordance with F-gas leak testing requirements to prove the integrity of the system. Just part of the joined up, forward thinking of Maximus Chillers.

Chiller Maintenance Company Lagging

On our maintenance visits, one of a long list of checks is to check the insulation and vapour seal. If the lagging is not in place correctly, moisture from the air forms as condensation on the steel shell. This is not visible, so the condition of the steel can deteriorate dramatically over time. Where the lagging is in good condition, industry guidance states that it should not be removed to inspect. Where the lagging is in poor condition, however, it should be stripped back to the location of a good seal to inspect the integrity of the shell. For low temperature glycol or brine applications, rapid deterioration occurs as the shell is defrosting and re freezing between production cycles or defrost cycles. We heat treat the steel to remove all the moisture, then grind off any rust, before adding a two kinds of specialist paint available for sale at Maximus Chillers. We then match into the old lagging for a good join with our off the shelf varieties of lagging. The lower the temperature of the application, the greater the thickness of the lagging supplied.

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400 kw white chillers with panels open during air cooled chiller maintenance

Air Cooled Chiller Maintenance

A nice day to carry out air cooled chiller maintenance at a new site we have taken over in the South East.

News Article No.6

Our engineer attended site at around 9am with the risk assessment method statement having been sent in advance. A site survey was carried out to see if there were any additional risks. Should there have been any changes- the RAMS have a section for the additional risks and control measures. After gaining a permit to work, our engineer was issued with a security pass to access the chiller compound. Three chillers are located in the compound which feed air handlers for a critical application. Two of the chillers are multiple system, scroll compressor, air cooled chillers. The other is a single system screw chiller.

Program Settings During Air Cooled Chiller Maintenance

A complete download of the program settings is available in our engineer’s phone. This is to cross reference the settings, should one of them be accidentally changed by the maintenance engineers. On site engineers are the first port of call for chiller trip outs, with the responsibility to get the plant up and running. We offer real time assistance, over the phone from our Technical Support Desk and can send user manuals in PDF form, direct to their computer. The settings were found to be nominal, so a detailed analysis of the alarm history was carried out:

Alarm History During Air Cooled Chiller Maintenance

In reverse date order, the alarm history of all the systems was interrogated. There had been several system shut downs to carry out the periodic maintenance by the onsite personnel. The electricity having been shut down, there was a subsequent oil pre heating timer in the history too. On Chiller 2, System 1 however, there had been several low pressure trip outs. Our engineer decided to start the maintenance with this system by carrying out a full diagnosis of the low side of the refrigerant system:

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Superheat During Air Cooled Chiller Maintenance

The system runs on R410a refrigerant. This refrigerant has higher operating pressures in comparison with other HFC refrigerants. It has an efficient temperature range which can be seen on a pressure enthalpy chart. Below or above this range- the refrigerant loses efficiency and so has a lower coefficient of performance. The most common saturation point for this refrigerant is 0°C which corresponds to a 7 bar suction pressure in the evaporator. Above this is the superheat of the refrigerant returning to the compressor. On this occasion there was found to be 26°C of superheat and a suction pressure of 4 bar- close to the low pressure trip out. After careful diagnosis, our engineer decided to focus his attention on the expansion valve:

Thermostatic Expansion Valve

There are 4 forces acting on a TEV:

Liquid line pressure coming from the condenser.
Versus
Suction pressure down the equalising line from the far side of the evaporator. This compensates for the pressure drop across the evaporator and shows the true compressor side pressure.

Spring pressure acting upwards and closing the valve.
Versus
Bulb pressure forcing the valve open.

To reduce the superheat, the bulb should have forced the valve open. The refrigerant charge in the bulb acts upon the bellows to achieve this. The reason for the malfunction, on this occasion, was found to be the failure of the expansion valve orifice. It had become jammed- causing a shortage of refrigerant in the evaporator and high superheat.

Latent Heat

Our engineer was carrying out the above fault finding with one compressor running and the other two being held off. This was to prevent a low pressure trip. Where chillers are left running with a high superheat condition, the reduced amount of latent heat causes a higher cost in electricity relative to refrigeration effect (COP) The refrigerant carries on superheating without absorbing latent heat- pointless and inefficient for a chiller.

Chiller Pump Down

For convenience, this chiller can be pumped down and valved off using the service valves. The evaporator can be worked on after breaking in procedures are carried out. Therefore, we have arranged for this to be carried out before fitting the new expansion valve parts. These chillers also have the ability to pump down the refrigerant on receiving a fault feedback from the electronic leak detector. This is an added measure to lower the environmental impact of refrigerant leaks.

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Subcooling During Air Cooled Chiller Maintenance

This is cooling the refrigerant vapour down, through the latent heat phase and then subcooling the liquid down further. On System 2 of the same chiller, a subcooling issue was identified. 21 bar/ 36°C saturation was normal for that system as defined by the fan speed controller. Now, the system pressure was higher at 28 bar/ 47°C saturation, so our engineer decided to work out the subcooling. A very high reading of subcooling was recorded at 28°C this was diagnosed to be due to non condensables in the refrigerant:

System Non Condensables

Non condensables are gases that will not condense, such as, air and nitrogen. If nitrogen is not vented properly and a deep vacuum then achieved, the gasses will remain in the refrigerant system. When calculating the subcooling, the readings work out incorrectly due the presence of the gasses. This can lead to false diagnosis. The remedy for the issue was to arrange a full refrigerant decant, pressure testing and dehydration, before charging with new refrigerant.

Efficiency

Having good subcooling values on a refrigerant system is critical to efficiency. Where there is no subcooling- the refrigerant has not fully rejected all the latent heat from the condenser. This can be seen when looking at a PH chart and plotting the pressures and temperatures. This heat remains in the refrigerant and adds to the system along with heat added from the compressor and heat from the process. This is another reason the coefficient of performance is reduced and so incurring increasing electricity costs for the plant.

Economizer

These chillers are also fitted with refrigerant economizers- one for each system. They work by diverting some of the refrigerant from the condenser, through a small expansion valve, then through a plate heat exchanger. The rest of the liquid refrigerant passes on the other side of the plate heat exchanger and so is further subcooled.

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Yellow oil drums, ammonia refrigerant cylinders and flammable flushing agent of chiller supplier

Chiller Parts Supplier

Chiller Parts Supplier of Compressors

Centrifugal

As a chiller parts supplier, all kinds of centrifugal compressors are remanufactured in our workshop. With an overhead gantry crane and specialist equipment to hand- Maximus Chillers completes the picture. We have a lift and shift team who are skilled at getting the compressor out of the most awkward locations. A variety of lifting equipment is used, including 3 phase electric hoists and trollies. Our team do this kind of work all the time, so they are accustomed to overcoming all the difficulties and obstacles.

Screw

Screw compressors are remanufactured on the bench. With compressed air and bearing tools- our skilled technicians are seasoned in high tolerance measurements. The bearing clearance and shaft run out are accurately measured and adjusted. This means that the useful life of the compressor is extended, often to beyond the lifespan of the chiller.

Scroll

We have a range of off the shelf Copeland compressors for a fast lead time on process chiller repairs. These can be sent to site on the day using our fast door to door supply chain. We have all the sizes of compressor available. The pipework and mountings can be adapted too. This means that if your compressor is a different make with a longer lead time- our compressor will be fitted and adapted to your machine- fast!

Chiller Parts Supplier of Condensers

Air Cooled

When the condenser on an air cooled chiller is in poor condition- our site survey team will attend to measure up for a new bespoke condenser. This is done free of charge and ensures that the new condenser will fit easily into the old chiller. The exact subcooling requirement of the old condenser is taken into account which is duplicated on to the new condenser. This means a like for like swap can take place even when the old condenser is obsolete.

Shell and Tube

This type of condenser is used on water cooled chillers. It is protected from contaminants by a strainer on the water system. We have these condensers built to order by our bespoke manufacturer. They are shipped to site on an overnight delivery, so we can get straight down to work in the morning. We therefore minimise downtime in the swap out of this part.

Chiller Parts Supplier of Evaporators

Shell and tube are the most popular type of evaporator for large chillers. The low temperature refrigerant is on the outside of the tubes in liquid form. The water is pumped through the tubes, releasing heat from the process and into the refrigerant. This is latent heat as the liquid refrigerant boils off into a vapour. Where the heat exchange does not greatly improve after cleaning, we recommend replacing this part.

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Vibration Eliminators

We have all of the sizes of anacondas on the shelf in our stores. This saves on the delivery time to site when your process is off due to the chiller. Maximus Chillers will get you up and running- fast! We can also fit flexible vibration hoses which achieve the same result as anacondas. Whereas two anacondas are fitted vertically and horizontally, only one, long vibration hose is needed.

Chiller Parts Supplier of Flushing Agent

When things go wrong, we stock a solvent based flushing agent which is blown through the system using nitrogen. The waste product is caught on the far end in drums that come with the kit. This is then returned to the suppliers for recycling.

Refrigerant Economizers

These are another term for a subcooler. If the refrigerant is further subcooled after the condenser- the system will run more efficiently. This part usually takes the form of a plate heat exchanger with an expansion valve providing the refrigeration effect needed to further subcool the remaining liquid.

Chiller Parts Supplier of Pressure Transducers

We can make temporary repairs to faulty pressure transducers using our test equipment. This will keep your plant running while the part arrives on site. Then we can get your chiller up and running with the correct readings in the controls. This will assist your onsite maintenance engineers in giving us useful readings when we are in communications over the phone.

Chiller Parts Supplier of Ammonia and HFC Refrigerant

A full selection of refrigerants are available including: anhydrous ammonia, R407c, R134a and R410a. These refrigerants come in small 12kg, midi 26kg, large 56kg and bomb 800kg sizes. Our vehicles are equipped with tail lifts and lifting gear to facilitate delivery. We can therefore arrange the delivery and collection of refrigerant at your site, free of charge, anywhere in the UK. For our overseas customers, we arrange the transportation from the local suppliers.

Chiller Parts Supplier of Oil

Low, medium and high viscosity oils in 5ltr cans and 20ltr drums are ready for shipping from our storage area. It is critical to select the correct grade of compressor oil as bearing wear and reduced service life will result. We take regular samples of this oil to see if things are starting to go wrong in the compressor. We can then nip these problems in the bud, giving you dramatic savings.

Any Chiller- Any Problem- Any Part- Any Refrigerant- Anywhere- The MAXIMUS ADVANTAGE™

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Yellow oil drums, ammonia refrigerant cylinders and flammable flushing agent of chiller supplier

Chiller Refurbishment Supplier

Maximus Chillers is an established chiller refurbishment supplier. Maximus means the highest and the greatest in Latin, so we pride ourselves in offering the highest and the greatest customer service and technical capability. There is never a job too big for Maximus Chillers- we are seasoned in following a problem through to the logical solution.

Chiller Refurbishment Parts Supplier

Any part is available to our contract customers. We have a worldwide supply chain of the best suppliers. This means any part or refrigerant can be sourced at your convenience. When a part is not available, a different part of the same design specifications is selected and usually delivered same day. By same day we mean: the part is loaded into a van- then driven to site!

Oil and Refrigerant

We keep a stock of oil, refrigerant and other materials in our stores- see picture. This provides you with 'round the corner' convenience to your factory or facility. Whatever kind of ammonia grade specialist oil you require- we have it on the shelf. With a comprehensive range of other chemicals and solvents- Maximus Chillers completes the picture.

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Chiller Refurbishment Diagnosis

Our engineers are in their comfort zone while carrying out diagnosis during chiller refurbishment- that is what they do best! Even when a fault involves wiring that disappears into a loom, down the other end of the machine, with no wiring diagram- Maximus Chillers can help. Usually, however, faults are obvious to our engineers or can be found easily.

Technical Support Desk

Our contract customers enjoy the full benefit of our global technical support desk. We offer real time technical support with manuals being sent electronically to site. Where a time difference is involved, we arrange a time convenient to both locations, or answer emails when the office opens in the morning. If we can talk you through over the phone, we can get you up and running with the minimal disruption to your process.

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Visit the ASHRAE for Standards and Guidelines Under Continuous Maintenance


Chilling plant service showing yellow top recovery cylinder with gauge line and sight glass fitted

Chilling Plant Service

Chilling plant service had been arranged because our customer had been having high pressure problems.

Transducer Required Chilling Plant Service

The 4-20mA transducer needed replacing as it was reading low by a long shot. Therefore, the PLC was not bringing the fans on as it should. The pressure in the high side of the system was getting up to 40 bar. This is because the refrigerant was R410a which has a higher head pressure than other commonly used HFC refrigerants. We ordered the replacement transducer which is fitted with a female fitting.

Chilling Plant Service Leaks

Our engineer concentrated his attention on the high side of the system to start with. Then, he found a leak on a fitting, a leak on the pressure relief valve fitting and a leak on the liquid line near the drier. A sealant was used for leaks on the fittings- they were removed, cleaned and refitted. The leak on the liquid line was re sealed by removing the section of pipe, removing any remaining solder, then the section of pipe was rebrazed.

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Pressure Test

The remaining parts of the system were leak tested then the plant was put on a pressure test to ensure the whole system was leak free. The pressure test was satisfactory and so the evacuation process could be started.

Evacuation Process 

Each of our engineers has a powerful vac pump to speed up the dehydration process. This means that a deep vacuum can often be pulled on the same day, instead of the usual overnight process. The nitrogen and other non condensables were removed quickly and the Torr gauge came down to the pressure where moisture was being removed. At this pressure, any moisture is forced to boil off around the system.

Recharging of the Chilling Plant Being Serviced

In the photo, the plant is being recharged at the end of the work. It is being recharged into the liquid side of the evaporator. All readings were okay when running the system. Further leak tests were then carried out at normal operating pressures.

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Read more about refrigerant reclamation by following this link to Wikipedia | Click Here


Chilled water system repair of condenser to a silver chiller with blue compressors

Chilled Water System Condenser Repair

Chilled Water System Condenser Beyond Repair

The repair of the condenser was required on this chilled water system because the previous company had been chasing leaks round in a circle. Therefore, the customer had decided to buy a new condenser. This was our first job with a new contract, so we wanted to make a good impression.

Condenser Removal

There was no refrigerant in the system, so our engineer cut the discharge and liquid line to the condenser. He then removed the rivets so the frame could be taken apart. Lifting equipment was fitted to the old condenser to aid the removal. Then, slings were fitted and a forklift truck removed the old condenser.

Condenser Replacement

Our engineer supervised the condenser replacement. He found that the new condenser did not fit correctly. The new condenser was 5mm thicker than the old one. It was decided to lift it back out and angle grind the frame to make more room. Once this was completed, the new condenser fitted correctly and was bolted in place.

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Pipework Repair

The pipework had to be repaired and brazed in. Then, the standard practice of a pressure test to ensure the integrity of the system.

The Evacuation Process during Chilled Water System Condenser Repair

Having passed the pressure test, our engineer set up the vac pump and started the evacuation process. This is to dehydrate the system by pulling a vacuum of less than 2 Torr. Any moisture in the system will boil away and leave the system dry.

Recharge and Test Operation

The refrigerant is R410a. Our engineer put around half the charge in, then trimmed the remaining charge according to the superheat and subcooling values. He monitored the system for the rest of the day- looking for leaks as the plant was at operating pressures of 30 Bar. All was well, so the customer signed off the paperwork as he was pleased with the capability of our engineer.

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Read about air cooled condenser installation at the Institute of Refrigeration | Click Here


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